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Hosting Terms

Web property
The combination of related websites and pages owned by the same company. For example, ABC Ltd is the owning or parent brand of ww.xyz.com and www.abc.com. Thus these two sites make up their Web property.

Web hosting service
A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that provides individuals, organizations and users with online systems for storing information, images, video, or any content accessible via the Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. Web hosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for servers they do not own to be located in their data center.

Virtual private server
Virtual private servers or Virtual dedicated servers are a form of virtualization that split a single physical server into multiple virtual servers. The practice of partitioning a single server so that it appears as multiple servers has long been common practice in mainframe computers, but has seen a resurgence lately with the development of software and technologies such as VMware, Xen, FreeBSD Jail, User-mode Linux, Linux-VServer, FreeVPS, OpenVZ, and Virtuozzo.

Internet hosting
In the Internet hosting service industry, virtual private servers fill a void between shared web hosting service and dedicated hosting service, and are quickly becoming the main-stay of many hosting companies.

They allow root-level access to individual clients without requiring physically dedicated servers. They are most widely used by businesses and individuals that need a customized solution that cannot be filled in a shared hosting environment.

Dedicated hosting
A dedicated hosting service, dedicated server, or managed hosting service is a type of Internet hosting where the client leases an entire server not shared with anyone. This is more flexible than shared hosting, as organizations have full control over the server(s), including choice of operating system, hardware, etc. Server administration can usually be provided by the hosting company as an add-on service. In some cases a dedicated server can offer less overhead and a larger return on investment. Dedicated servers are most often housed in data centers, similar to colocation facilities, providing redundant power sources and HVAC systems. In contrast to colocation, a dedicated hosting service provides system administration and owns the server itself.

Colocation center
A colocation center ("colo") or carrier hotel is a type of data center where [a] multiple telecommunications or network service providers locate their connections adjacent at the physical layer to each other's networks (points of presence) and [b] users of these services locate network, server and storage gear and interconnect to network service provider(s) with a minimum of cost and complexity.

Increasingly organizations are recognizing the benefits of colocating their mission-critical equipment within a data centre. Colocation is becoming popular because of the time and cost savings a company can realize as result of using shared data centre infrastructure. Significant benefits of scale (large power and mechanical systems) result in large colocation facilities, typically 50,000 to 100,000 feet. With IT and communications facilities in safe, secure hands, telecommunications, internet, ASP and content providers, as well as enterprises, enjoy less latency and the freedom to focus on their core business.

Additionally, customers reduce their traffic back-haul costs and free up their internal networks for other uses. Moreover, by outsourcing network traffic to a colocation service provider with greater bandwidth capacity, web site access speeds should improve considerably.

Major types of colocation customers are:

Web commerce companies, who use the facilities for a safe environment and cost-effective, redundant connections to the Internet
Major enterprises, who use the facility for disaster avoidance, offsite data backup and business continuity
Telecommunication companies, who use the facilities to interexchange traffic with other telecommunications companies and access to potential clients
Most network access point facilities provide colocation.
CPanel
cPanel (control panel) is a graphical web-based management tool, designed to make administration of web sites as easy as possible. cPanel handles all aspects of website administration in an easy-to-use interface. The software, which is proprietary, runs on a number of popular RPM-based Linux distributions, such as SUSE, Fedora, Mandriva, CentOS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and cAos, as well as FreeBSD. Preliminary support for Debian is claimed, although this version has been in "beta" state for several years, and is not supported. cPanel is commonly accessed on ports 2082 and 2083 (for an SSL version). Authentication is either via HTTP or web page login.

It is designed for use by commercial web hosting services, so the company does not offer a reduced-cost personal use license; however, owners of non-profit organisations such as educational institutions and charities can request a license at no charge.

It is only available on UNIX-based operating systems, but a version for Microsoft Windows is in development. As with the Debian port, however, this version has remained BETA for several years. Versions for Solaris and Mac OS X were also claimed to be under development for some time.

Features
To the client, CPanel provides front-ends for a number of common operations, including the management of PGP keys, crontab tasks, mail and FTP accounts, and mailing lists. Several add-ons exist, including Fantastico, a script which allows the automated installation of open source web applications such as phpBB.

Resellers gain access to an additional control panel known as Web Host Manager, or WHM, which allows them to create and manage sub-accounts. The server administrator also has access to additional features in WHM which allow them to perform server maintenance tasks such as rebooting the server and upgrading software.

Unlike some other web hosting control panels, CPanel manages some software packages separately from the underlying operating system, applying upgrades to Apache, PHP, MySQL, and related software packages automatically. This ensures that these packages are kept up-to-date and compatible with CPanel, but has become a cause for consternation to some, as it becomes difficult to easily install newer versions of these packages.

WHM
WHM, or Web Host Manager is the part of CPanel that is used to administer accounts. It is accessible to users with reseller privileges, including the server administrator. Reseller users of CPanel have a smaller set of features than the root user. Most resellers usually have the following features:

Setup Remote Access key
Server Information
Service Status
List accounts
List parked domains
List subdomains
List suspended accounts
Show accounts over quota
View Bandwidth usage
Create a new account
Limit Bandwidth usage
Modify Suspended Account Page
Modify an account
Password Modification
Quota Modification
Skeleton Directory
Suspend/Unsuspend an Account
Terminate an Account
Upgrade/Downgrade an Account
Modify/Upgrade Multiple Accounts
Terminate Multiple Accounts
Install FrontPage Extensions
Install FrontPage Mail Extensions
Uninstall FrontPage Extensions
Change WHM Theme
Add Packages
Delete Packages
Edit Packages
Feature Manager
Add a DNS Zone
Delete a DNS Zone
Edit DNS Zone
Edit MX Entry
Edit Zone Templates
Park a Domain
Mail Troubleshooter
Branding
Synchronize FTP Passwords
Unless the reseller has root access they can only use the account modification features 'owned' by their reseller.

Domain name
A name that is entered into a computer (e.g. as part of a Web site or other URL, or an e-mail address) and then looked up in the global Domain Name System which informs the computer of the IP address(es) with that name.
the product that registrars provide to their customers.
a name looked up in the DNS for other purposes.
They are sometimes colloquially (and incorrectly) referred to by marketers as "Web addresses".

The authoritative definition is that given in the RFCs that define the DNS.
Domain names are hostnames that provide more easily memorable names to stand in for numeric IP addresses. They allow for any service to move to a different location in the topology of the Internet (or another internet), which would then have a different IP address.

Each string of letters, digits and hyphens between the dots is called a label in the parlance of the domain name system (DNS). Valid labels are subject to certain rules, which have relaxed over the course of time. Originally labels must start with a letter, and end with a letter or digit; any intervening characters may be letters, digits, or hyphens. Labels must be between 1 and 63 characters long (inclusive). Letters are ASCII AZ and az; domain names are compared case-insensitively. Later it became permissible for labels to commence with a digit (but not for domain names to be entirely numeric), and for labels to contain internal underscores, but support for such domain names is uneven. These are the rules imposed by the way names are looked up ("resolved") by DNS. Some top level domains (see below) impose more rules, such as a longer minimum length, on some labels. Fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) are sometimes written with a final dot.

Translating numeric addresses to alphabetical ones, domain names allow Internet users to localize and visit Web sites. Additionally since more than one IP address can be assigned to a domain name, and more than one domain name assigned to an IP address, one server can have multiple roles, and one role can be spread among multiple servers. One IP address can even be assigned to several servers, such as with anycast and hijacked IP space.